Freedom in the Cloud - Defining the Freedom to Migrate

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Software freedom is being able to choose and customize the software you use without limit. In a world filled with network applications, software freedom also requires that we can choose the host of our network applications. For a user to have that choice they must have access to a full export of their account and the configuration settings necessary to setup the application on another host.

The Free Software Foundation has addressed the four freedoms in the network context with the GNU Affero General Public License but freedom for users of network services requires a fifth, broader freedom: the freedom to migrate.

Convenience at a price

Not since the printing press has society been faced with a technology as useful and therefore important as the network application. Internet-connected applications can be accessed instantly from myriad devices around the world. Users are able to ignore development, maintenance, and administration of network applications as well as the resources required(servers, electricity) to run the application. For the purely practical user, this arrangement is ideal. They can use the application with a minimum of operational overhead and cost.

For the user who values their freedom, however, network applications can be disasterous. The original four freedoms may exist in degrees ranging from none with a proprietary, tightly-controlled network application to all with an application licensed under a network-oriented free software license like the Affero General Public License(AGPL). A network application may store user data, configuration settings, and may have connections with other systems that can lock the user into the host of the application.

Since the program runs on a remote computer, there is no binary to examine, no data files to decipher and no internal network traffic to analyze. Without the four freedoms in addition to full export of account information and configuration settings, it is impossible to have freedom while using a network application.

Requirements for Freedom

To have freedom, a user must be free to switch to another host without losing data or functionality. This requires a user be assured the four freedoms and have access to at least the following:

1. The user must be able to export any data required to operate their account on another system. This would include both the public and private data about their account that affects their utility and experience with the application. For example, profile information, internal messages, notes, conversations, uploaded files, credentials to access other systems, and settings they have customized in the application should all be available in the export. To support this feature continuously during development, import and export of each bit of data should be functional before the data is used by the application.

2. Some applications create relationships between accounts such as friend, group membership, and administrative hierarchies. These relationships should continue to work even when accounts are served by independent hosts. If relationships break due to account migrations, a facility to reconnect them should exist that is robust enough to reconnect multiple accounts moving to their own instances. To guard against a single point of failure, such a facility should not rely on a centralized directory.

3. Networked applications often have settings that have affect the way a particular instance of the application works. It should be possible to export that configuration data to any user of the system.

4. Some network applications connect to other network applications by means of an API. For an application to have the freedom to migrate, any API providers used by the system must also give the user the freedom to migrate.

The above requirements represent a first attempt to secure user freedom against the lock-in possible with a network application. As an ethical society, we must choose and build systems that respect user freedom and offer the freedom to migrate. There are many free network applications licensed under the AGPL that can be enhanced with the freedom to migrate. Other, non-free applications must be rejected and replaced if users are to maintain and extend freedom into network applications.

Further reading:

GPL's Cloudy Future

Eben Moglen Interview